For a given centrifugal pump operating at a
constant speed, the flow rate through the pump is dependent
upon the differential pressure or head developed by the pump.
The lower the pump head, the higher the flow rate. A vendor
manual for a specific pump usually contains a curve of pump
flow rate versus pump head called a pump characteristic curve.
After a pump is installed in a system, it is usually tested to
ensure that the flow rate and head of the pump are within the
required specifications. A typical centrifugal pump
characteristic curve is shown below.
There are several terms associated with the pump characteristic curve that must be defined. Shutoff head is the maximum head that can be developed by a centrifugal pump operating at a set speed. Pump runout is the maximum flow that can be developed by a centrifugal pump without damaging the pump. Centrifugal pumps must be designed and operated to be protected from the conditions of pump runout or operating at shutoff head.
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